“century” = 100 men.
“centurion” = commands a century.
“maniple” = 2 centuries.
“cohort” = 6 centuries = 600 men.
“Legion” = 10 cohorts = 60 centuries = 6,000 men + some calvary as follows:
- a Roman Legion = 300 calvary.
- an Ally Legion = 900 calvary.
in 150 B.C. = 8 Legions (half Roman, half Ally) = 48,000 men and 4,800 calvary.
in 37 B.C. = 70 Legions = 420,000 men and 42,000 calvary.
Chain of command:
Soldiers report to the Centurions;
Centurions report to the 24 officers called “Tribunes” for Roman Legions or “Prefects” for Ally Legions).
24 Tribunes and Prefects report to the 2 Consuls who are commanders in chief.
2 Consuls are appointed by the Senate every year to jointly govern for 1 year term.
velites = youngest soldiers: a sword, thin javelins, small shield, breastplate, and wolf-skin helmet.
hastati = a spanish sword, a thick and a thin javelin, large oblong shield, breastplate, brass helmet with tall purple or black feathers, greaves (shin guards).
- (Bronze breastplate was square and called “heart protector”)
- Soldiers that could afford it wore chain-mail instead of the heart protector
- Panoply = pan “all” + hopla “arms” = complete set of weapons
principes = same as above.
triarii = same as above, except carried spears instead of javelins.
vexillarii = the standard-bearers = 2 per maniple, selected by the centurions from their best soldiers.
Character of the Centurions:
Chosen for steadfastness and leadership ability.
Not daring or adventurous spirit. Romans do not want men that rush thoughtlessly into battle or initiate the fighting.
Rather, centurions must be those who hold their ground even when out-numbered and hard-pressed, and who will die at their posts.
Square (see here).
Note: The church has 24 elders also, also divided 12 the apostles of Christ and 12 the apostles of the book of Acts. All centurions mentioned in Bible are basically good – “centurion/s” appears 24 times in 24 verses in 12 chapters in 4 books (Mt, Mk, Lk, Acts). Our New Jerusalem is also a perfect square, and the so-called “Temple Mount” in Jerusalem is really a Roman Fort. Recorded history has also been 60 centuries. Roman law began with the “12 tables” of 450 B.C. near the time the Jews returned from Babylon. Rome divided east and west. West: Spain, France, England, all founded America -> USA. City of Rome held by the Pope. Holy Roman Empire -> Germany -> EU. Eastern Roman Empire -> Greece -> Russia. (Constantinople under Islam since 1453). The world’s 4 powers are of Roman origin: UK, USA, Russia, and EU (+Pope).
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(Polybius, “History of the World“)
Tattoos, body piercings, cigarettes, alcohol, and gambling are all legal in the United States, but that doesn’t mean they aren’t all dangerous and ill-advised. Even marijuana is now “legal” in several states, but that doesn’t mean it’s now a good idea for people to get stoned.
Many stupid and unhealthy activities remain perfectly legal. In the name of “freedom” and “liberty” people have the right to make asses of themselves.
Lefties repealed many laws preventing their reckless and immoral behaviour by asserting, “we cannot legislate morality.” Supposedly freedom means letting make their own decisions based on their own moral code, even if other people disprove.
But now that’s changed. Now that the left has legalized everything wicked, they have decided that legalization is morality: everyone must now approve of their sinful activity.
They “legalized” (although not legitimately, of course, but by judicial fiat) such things as sodomy, anus-marriage, and gender-confusion so disapproval of these matters is no longer acceptable. These things are now “legal” and the left refuses to tolerate our attempts to retain moral codes against them.
So “freedom” was supposedly the basis for decriminalizing their sex perversions, but once legalized they then pretend that moral righteousness was the basis – they have “love” and we have “hate” – therefore they indignantly seek to deny us the “freedom” to express our moral disapproval against them.
Of course, that was their goal from the beginning. The pretended ‘freedom’ meant they could do whatever they wanted to do – but after they obtained their ‘freedom’ they admit that freedom only applies to doing what is right.
They asserted their power to do evil, pretended it was based on a legitimate ‘freedom’, then said freedoms are actually based on doing right, and therefore denouncing their legalized-sin is unacceptable.
Bolivian diplomat, bemoaning the illegal attack by the USA against Syria, comparing it to the USA’s unilateral declaration of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, held up the UN Charter with his right hand and said, “ultimately these words will prevail!”
The simpleton seems authentically offended and surprised at the hypocrisy he is witnessing, and yet appears to profess an authentic faith in man’s ultimate ability to govern himself apart from God.
Isaiah 8:9-10 “¶ Associate yourselves, O ye people, and ye shall be broken in pieces; and give ear, all ye of far countries: gird yourselves, and ye shall be broken in pieces; gird yourselves, and ye shall be broken in pieces. 10 Take counsel together, and it shall come to nought; speak the word, and it shall not stand: for God is with us.“
The USA and UK and France are lying, of course. And everybody knows it. But God has made them insane in order to destroy all the other insane nations by coercively binding them all together under one all-powerful world-government and the ‘mark of the beast’ currency system.
It has all been foretold long-ago exactly what is happening today. Man’s word will not stand, but God’s word will.
“¶ And this shall be a sign unto you, saith the LORD, that I will punish you in this place, that ye may know that my words shall surely stand against you for evil:” Jeremiah 44:29
“The grass withereth, the flower fadeth: but the word of our God shall stand for ever.” Isaiah 40:8
A good presentation of sound Bible doctrine.
God is “three” and “one” at the same time.
1 John 5:7-8 “For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. 8 And there are three that bear witness in earth, the Spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three agree in one.”
The word “three” here justifies using the word “Trinity” because it’s simply a contraction of the same thing: three-is-one means three-unity means tri-unity, hence trinity.
The fact that “trinity” also had some obscure antecedents in some 3-god idols of ancient paganism doesn’t justify maintaining a superstitious aversion to using the word.
The days of the week are pagan, the months are pagan, hygiene was the god of health, etc. In Matthew 4:24 the moon goddess Luna is mentioned: “those which were lunatick…”
Although in the Old Testament God told the Jews: Exodus 23:13 “…make no mention of the name of other gods, neither let it be heard out of thy mouth.” But we aren’t Old Testament Jews, we are saved English speaking Christians, and nobody upon hearing the word “lunatic” is going to start worshipping the moon unless they were already nuts to begin with.
Common sense says we can use all good English words, as it says in Titus 1:15 “Unto the pure all things are pure: but unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure; but even their mind and conscience is defiled.” Harbouring paranoid phobias of all pagan-related terminology is rather stultifying and idiotic.
Describing God as three “persons” is also justified from the scriptures.
Jesus is a person:
Matthew 27:24 “¶ When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing, but that rather a tumult was made, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye to it.”
2 Corinthians 2:10 “To whom ye forgive any thing, I forgive also: for if I forgave any thing, to whom I forgave it, for your sakes forgave I it in the person of Christ;”
God the Father is a person:
Hebrews 1:3 “Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high;”
Since scriptures define Christ’s “person” as his distinct being, and the Father’s “person” as his distinct being, it obviously follows that the third distinct being of the Holy Ghost would be called a “person” likewise. Yet all three are one.
So God is one, but there are three distinct persons: Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.
I don’t understand why this should be difficult. All true Christians should humbly accept and believe it in faith.
I think some people become contentious against this sound doctrine because they desire to (satanically) reach heights where they see everything clearly, as it were, below themselves, including God also, so defining the great mystery of God by their own dogmatic mind and understanding they prove to themselves that they are exalted. It’s actually rather unseemly and prideful.
But they wouldn’t admit this, of course. They’d cloak their mission as “rescuing” Christian terminology from Roman Catholic, hence pagan, overtones. I find this argument unpersuasive, it would be like refusing to call Christ the “Son of God” because that is what the demoniacs said. Matthew 8:29 “And, behold, they cried out, saying, What have we to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God? art thou come hither to torment us before the time?” Who cares if Roman Catholics got the doctrine of the Trinity right? That doesn’t make the doctrine any more or less true than it is already because it is based on the Bible itself.
Also, although it is helpful to understand God’s three persons by analogy with a man’s body, soul, and spirit – three distinct natures that united to form a singe man – nevertheless that is an analogy from the creation to the Creator, from the incomplete to the complete, from the imperfect to the perfect. The three in the Godhead are so distinct that their witness for the other is sufficiently independent so as to be completely valid.
Those that overly unify don’t understand to what extend their effort detracts fro the testimony of the Father and of the Holy Ghost – 2 witnesses – concerning Christ. Nor do they see the perfection of love in God who amongst his own being has deference, sacrifice, and reciprocation without the need of any outside object. Etc etc … more could be said along these lines.
Some suppose that the proper KJV word to use instead of “the Trinity” is “the Godhead” – but there is not much support for this. Three verses use the term:
- Acts 17:29 Forasmuch then as we are the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Godhead is like unto gold, or silver, or stone, graven by art and man’s device.
- Romans 1:20 For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:
- Colossians 2:9 For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily.
In Acts 17 Paul is preaching to pagans completely unfamiliar with the true God. We are no longer ignorant so why would we use the same term?
In Romans 1:20 Paul separates “eternal power” and “Godhead” and says they can both be appreciated by the things that are made. Again, this is a reference to pagan understanding of God by general revelation instead of by special revelation of the scriptures that describe to us a Trinity.
Colossians 2:9 indicates that “Godhead” dwells in Christ making it something distinct from Christ.
I think these three verses show that “Godhead” is another term for God the Father. He is the “head” of the Trinity. 1 Corinthians 11:3 “…the head of Christ is God.”
This is a controversial subject, very mysterious, and those that approach it to study it should do so cautiously by looking up scriptures and reading them carefully. We should all avoid uncharitable acrimony toward people who seem to get their descriptions wrong. Religious phonies who viciously attack so-called “heretics” for varying slightly from “approved” creeds show themselves to be heretical also, but worse and more dangerous.
According to Marti news, 17,000 New Independent Version (NIV) Bibles were returned by the Religious Affairs Department of the Communist Party but the King James Versions were not returned. (premierchristianity.com)
The Cuban government is not giving permission for the NIV Bibles to enter the country, as it prefers older translations … (christianpost.com)
Notice how the KJV opens the door and then along comes the devil’s apostate ministers who try to exploit the opportunity by flooding the poor Cubans with the stale bread of their poisoned and corrupt perversions of the holy scriptures. They are like circling vultures ready to devour the flock’s baby lambs as soon as they are born.
Thank God somebody in the Communist Party of Cuba had enough sense to reject the NIV scam. The Communists might not believe in God, but at least they know how to recognize when somebody is lying to them and trying to import counterfeit materials.
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Acts 19:19-20 “Many of them also which used curious arts brought their books together, and burned them before all men: and they counted the price of them, and found it fifty thousand pieces of silver. 20 So mightily grew the word of God and prevailed.”
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UPDATE: Spanish news reports are calling it the “KJV of 1960” which probably means they are actually talking about the Spanish Reina-Valera version compared to the modern Spanish NIV version. All the old Spanish versions are somewhat inferior to the King James Bible, but certainly the Reina-Valera was based on the Textus Recptus so it is much better than the totally corrupt NIV garbage. (For some different Bible-believers’ views on the Spanish Bible controversy see here and here and here and pdf-here).
“The crafty enemies of the Church and human society attempt to seduce the people in many ways. One of their chief methods is the misuse of the new technique of book-production. They are wholly absorbed in the ceaseless daily publication and proliferation of impious pamphlets, newspapers and leaflets which are full of lies, calumnies and seduction. Furthermore, under the protection of the Bible Societies which have long since been condemned by this Holy See, they distribute to the faithful under the pretext of religion, the holy bible in vernacular translations. Since these infringe the Church’s rules, they are consequently subverted and most daringly twisted to yield a vile meaning. So you realize very well what vigilant and careful efforts you must make to inspire in your faithful people an utter horror of reading these pestilential books. Remind them explicitly with regard to divine scripture that no man, relying on his own wisdom, is able to claim the privilege of rashly twisting the scriptures to his own meaning in opposition to the meaning which holy mother Church holds and has held. It was the Church alone that Christ commissioned to guard the deposit of the faith and to decide the true meaning and interpretation of the divine pronouncements.”
Encyclical “NOSTIS ET NOBISCUM” by Pope Pius IX (December 8, 1849)
The Roman Catholic cult didn’t go bad at Vatican II – it has been been an apostate sect for many centuries.